Pullulan is a polysaccharide polymer consisting of maltotriose units, also known as α-1,4- ;α-1,6-glucan’. Threeglucose units in maltotriose are connected by an α-1,4 glycosidic bond, whereas consecutive maltotriose units are connected to each other by an α-1,6 glycosidic bond. Pullulan is produced from starch by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. Pullulan is mainly used by the cell to resist desiccation and predation. The presence of this polysaccharide also facilitates diffusion of molecules both into and out of the cell.[1]
As an edible, mostly tasteless polymer, the chief commercial use of pullulan is in the manufacture of edible films that are used in various breath freshener or oral hygiene products such as Listerine Cool Mint of Johnson and Johnson (USA) and Meltz Super Thin Mints of Avery Bio-Tech Private Ltd. (India). As a food additive

A film former

Functions:

Pullulan is a film former and binder popular in the production of breath strips, but it also appears as an ingredient in cosmetics and beauty products because of its solubility in water, and adhesive properties. According to Wikipedia, it is produced from the starch of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and CosmeticsCop.com says that it is “Glucan gum produced by black yeast that contains polysaccharides, which makes it a good water-binding agent, thickening agent, and antioxidant,” although no other information corroborates any antioxidant properties or benefits.

Pullulan is seen as an ingredient in cosmetics and beauty products, specifically anti-aging products, because of its ability to provide an instant skin-tightening effect as it adheres to the skin. It is able to quickly form a sheer film that temporarily improves skin’s texture and appearance. According to Hayashibara, a Japanese manufacturer of Pullulan, it also provides a smoother texture to formulas, provides foam retention, is anti-static and oil resistant, and water soluble and therefore easily rinsed away.

Safety Measures/Side Effects:

The CosmeticsDatabase finds Pullulan to be a low hazard ingredient, although a Japanese study in 1985 did find that one or more in vitro tests of Pullulan on non-mammalian cells showed positive mutation results that could potentially lead to cancer. This is unlikely to result in cancer from the use of this ingredient in cosmetics or beauty products, however. No other studies were found that listed negative side effects or adverse reactions from using products or formulas

Abstract

Pullulan is a water-soluble glucan gum produced aerobically by growing a yeast like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. It is a regularly repeating copolymer with the chemical structure {→ 6)-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 →}n. Thus the polysaccharide is viewed as a succession of α-(1 → 6)-linked (1 → 4)-α-d-triglucosides i.e. maltotriose (G3). Pullulan have a wide range of commercial and industrial applications in many fields like food science, health care, pharmacy and even in lithography. Due to its strictly linear structure, pullulan is also very valuable in basic research as well as a well-defined model substance. This review attempts to critically appraise the current literature on fungal exopolysaccharide (EPS) ‘pullulan’ considering its microbial sources, structural geometry, upstream processing, downstream processing, peculiar characteristics and applications.

Pullulan Technical Information

1: What is pullulan:
Pullulan is naturally occurring, as a cell wall component for organisms such as fungus  Aureobasidium pullulans.
Pullulan is produced from starch by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans.
As an edible, bland and tasteless polymer, the chief commercial use of pullulan is in the manufacture of edible films that are used in various breath freshener or oral hygiene products such as Listerine Cool Mint PocketPaks. As a food additive, it is known by the E number E1204.

2: Chemistry:
CAS number [9057-02-7]; Molecular formula (C6H12O5)n
Pullulan is a polysaccharide polymer consisting of maltotriose units, also known as α-1,4- ;α-1,6-glucan. Three glucose units in maltotriose are connected by an α-1,4 glycosidic bond, whereas consecutive maltotriose units are connected to each other by an α-1,6 glycosidic bond.

3: Why pullulan:
The reason that we choose pullulan is due to following factors:
1): Pullulan is more natural, involving no toxic chemicals, much less environment polluting in its production process
2): Pullulan possesses more potential for price reduction when produced in mass, because the fermentation technology used is widely used and very mature.
3): Pullulan film is 300 times stronger oxygen barrier than HPMC film, 9 times stronger than gelatin film
4): Pullulan is much more inert than gelatin or HPMC, so there is no interaction with products it intended to deliver.

4: How pullulan is made:
Commercially, Pullulan is from fermentation process. Aureobasidium pullulans grow on the carbohydrate substrate (sugar or starch. ThenAureobasidium pullulans is harvested. Followed by rupture the cell  with either enzyme or physical force. Pullulan then is extracted using simple water extraction process. There are no environment damaging waste, or carcinogenic material used.