Glucuronolactone

CAS number: 32449-92-6
Molecular formula: C6H8O6
Molar mass: 176.124
Melting point: 176-178 °C
Solubility in water: 26.9 g/100 mL

Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring chemical produced by the metabolism of glucose in the human liver. It is an important structural component of nearly all connective tissues. Glucuronolactone is also found in many plant gums.

Glucuronolactone

Glucuronolactone is rapidly absorbed and metabolised into non-toxic metabolites such as xylulose. In addition, humans may be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis. According to “The Merck Index”, it is also used as a detoxicant.

Glucuronolactone is a popular ingredient in energy drinks with claims that it detoxifies the body. Although levels of glucuronolactone in energy drinks can far exceed those found in the rest of the diet, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded that exposure to glucuronolactone from regular consumption of energy drinks is not a safety concern (No Observed Adverse Effect Level of glucuronolactone = 1,000mg/kg/day). A fatality was reported after intake of 1420 ml of an energy drink.

est Specification Results
Appearance Crystals/Crystalline Powder Conforms
Colour White/Off White Conforms
Aroma Characteristic Conforms
Flavour Characteristic Conforms
Identification Positive Conforms
Appearance of Solution Colourless Conforms
Assay 98.5%-102.0% 99.9%
Specific Rotation + 18.0° – 20.0° + 18.8°
Melting Point 170°C – 176°C 173.2°C
Loss on drying Max 0.5% 0.09%
Residue on Ignition Max 0.1% Conforms
Heavy Metals Max 10ppm < 10ppm
GMO Status Non GMO Non GMO
Irradiation Status Non Irradiated Non Irradiated
This material confirms to the CP

Glucuronolactone Application:

  • Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring chemical produced by the metabolism of glucose in the human liver. It is an important structural component of nearly all connective tissues. Glucuronolactone is also found in many plant gums.
  • Glucuronolactone is rapidly absorbed and metabolised into non-toxic metabolites such as xylulose. In addition, humans may be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis. According to The Merck Index, it is also used as a detoxicant.
  • Glucuronolactone is a popular ingredient in energy drinks with claims that it detoxifies the body. Although levels of glucuronolactone in energy drinks can far exceed those found in the rest of the diet, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded that exposure to glucuronolactone from regular consumption of energy drinks is not a safety concern (No Observed Adverse Effect Level of glucuronolactone = 1,000mgkgday). A fatality was reported after intake of 1420 ml of an energy drink.

Glucuronolactone Function

Glucuronolactone is glucuronolactone for short, is a naturally occurring chemical substances, glucose metabolites produced by the liver. This is an important constituent of connective tissue. In some urban legend, which is considered the drug during the Vietnam War, the US produced. But rumor has been confirmed false. On the medical use for acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or for detoxification of food poisoning or drug use.

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Glucuronolactone History

Glucuronolactone has received some notoriety due to an urban legend that it was a Vietnam War-era drug manufactured by the American government and since banned due to brain tumor-related deaths. However, the quoted British Medical Journal article does not exist; furthermore, no warnings appear on the Food and Drug Administration website[citation needed] regarding its potential to cause brain tumors or other maladies.[2] Moreover, glucuronolactone is hydrolyzed in the body (like butyrolactone) to glucuronic acid, which may be oxidized to glucaric acid, or isomerized to another hexuronic acid, so there is no reasonable toxicity mechanism. (via wikipedia)
Structure

Glucuronolactone is a molecule that is commonly found in energy drinks (at around 10-60mg, with variance depending on brand), although in studies ‘disassembling’ the constituents of energy drinks suggest no significant contribution towards energy.

Biological Significance

In vitro, D-glucuronolactone can be metabolized by a dehydrogenase into D-Glucaro-1,4-Lactone (G14L), where D-glucuronolactone appears to metabolize into a dilactone (d-glucaro-1,4-3,6-dilactone) and then spontaneously degrade into G14L.

D-Glucaric acid is the main urinary metabolite of the glucuronic acid pathway, which synthesizes Glucuronic Acid for the purposes of conjugation by drug metabolizing enzymes (UGT transferases). Daily urine output of D-Glucaric Acid is approximately 30-100umol.

Skeletal Muscle and Performance

One study injecting glucuronolactone (100mg/kg) intraperitoneally in rats immediately prior to a 30 minute swim and subsequent rest (the swim which was repeated three times, each with an injection prior to the swim) noted that glucuronolactone failed to affect time to exhaustion in the first swim but improved performance relative to saline in the second and third swim. (via examine)

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Product Description:

1.Glucuronolactone, also known as D-Glucuronolactone, DGL and D-Glucoronic Acid, is an organic metabolite found in the body. A metabolite is a substance that results from the metabolism of glucose in the human liver. This water-soluble crystalline compound has been made a common component in stimulants and energy drinks like Red Bull owing to research which revealed that DGL can boost energy, lessen sleepiness and increase alertness and reaction time.

2.The human liver naturally produces glucuronolactone from glucose and controls glycogen formation. With glucuronic acid as its immediate precursor, it is used for the oral administration of the said acid in the treatment of collagen and joint diseases. It is one of the basic units of and an element of Chondroitin Sulfate and is considered by some experts to be beneficial in making joint, tendon and ligament healthy and elastic. It has also been used in medicine as an antiarthritic agent it being a vital structural component of almost all fibrous and connective tissues in animals.

3.DGL also has a direct participation in detoxifying the liver through glucuronidation. The body carries this substance which hastens and stimulates the removal of the harmful substances endogenic and exogenic noxal. Glucuronidation aids in the elimination of medicines from the body. In the process, the medicines typically consumeglucuronolactone faster than the body can naturally produce it, and so diminishing the concentrations of other substances like glycogen. Hence, DGL has been incorporated to some medicines to increase their tolerance level and improve their elimination.

Application:

1.Glucuronolactone is metabolized to glucaric acid, xylitol, and L-xylulose, and humans may also be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis.According to The Merck Index, it is also used as adetoxicant.The liver uses glucose to create glucuronolactone, which inhibits the enzyme B-glucuronidase (metabolizesglucuronides), which should cause blood-glucuronide levels to rise

2.Theoretically, higher blood-glucuronides should help remove toxins from the body, leading to the claim that energy drinks are detoxifying.Free glucuronic acid (or its self-ester glucuronolactone) has less effect on detoxification than glucose, because the body synthesizes UDP-glucuronic acid from glucose. Therefore, sufficient carbohydrate intake provides enough UDP-glucuronic acid for detoxication, and foods rich in glucose are usually abundant in developed nations.

3.Glucuronolactone is a popular ingredient in energy drinks with claims that it detoxifies the body. Although levels of glucuronolactone in energy drinks can far exceed those found in the rest of the diet, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded that exposure to glucuronolactone from regular consumption of energy drinks is not a safety concern. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of glucuronolactone is 1000 mg/kg/day.