CAS number: 32449-92-6
Molecular formula: C6H8O6
Molar mass: 176.124
Melting point: 176-178 °C
Solubility in water: 26.9 g/100 mL
Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring chemical produced by the metabolism of glucose in the human liver. It is an important structural component of nearly all connective tissues. Glucuronolactone is also found in many plant gums.
Glucuronolactone is rapidly absorbed and metabolised into non-toxic metabolites such as xylulose. In addition, humans may be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis. According to “The Merck Index”, it is also used as a detoxicant.
Glucuronolactone is a popular ingredient in energy drinks with claims that it detoxifies the body. Although levels of glucuronolactone in energy drinks can far exceed those found in the rest of the diet, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded that exposure to glucuronolactone from regular consumption of energy drinks is not a safety concern (No Observed Adverse Effect Level of glucuronolactone = 1,000mg/kg/day). A fatality was reported after intake of 1420 ml of an energy drink.
|Appearance of Solution||Colourless||Conforms|
|Specific Rotation||+ 18.0° – 20.0°||+ 18.8°|
|Melting Point||170°C – 176°C||173.2°C|
|Loss on drying||Max 0.5%||0.09%|
|Residue on Ignition||Max 0.1%||Conforms|
|Heavy Metals||Max 10ppm||< 10ppm|
|GMO Status||Non GMO||Non GMO|
|Irradiation Status||Non Irradiated||Non Irradiated|
|This material confirms to the CP|
- Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring chemical produced by the metabolism of glucose in the human liver. It is an important structural component of nearly all connective tissues. Glucuronolactone is also found in many plant gums.
- Glucuronolactone is rapidly absorbed and metabolised into non-toxic metabolites such as xylulose. In addition, humans may be able to use glucuronolactone as a precursor for ascorbic acid synthesis. According to The Merck Index, it is also used as a detoxicant.
- Glucuronolactone is a popular ingredient in energy drinks with claims that it detoxifies the body. Although levels of glucuronolactone in energy drinks can far exceed those found in the rest of the diet, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has concluded that exposure to glucuronolactone from regular consumption of energy drinks is not a safety concern (No Observed Adverse Effect Level of glucuronolactone = 1,000mgkgday). A fatality was reported after intake of 1420 ml of an energy drink.
Glucuronolactone is glucuronolactone for short, is a naturally occurring chemical substances, glucose metabolites produced by the liver. This is an important constituent of connective tissue. In some urban legend, which is considered the drug during the Vietnam War, the US produced. But rumor has been confirmed false. On the medical use for acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or for detoxification of food poisoning or drug use.
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[Shelf Life] 2 years when properly stored.
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Glucuronolactone has received some notoriety due to an urban legend that it was a Vietnam War-era drug manufactured by the American government and since banned due to brain tumor-related deaths. However, the quoted British Medical Journal article does not exist; furthermore, no warnings appear on the Food and Drug Administration website regarding its potential to cause brain tumors or other maladies. Moreover, glucuronolactone is hydrolyzed in the body (like butyrolactone) to glucuronic acid, which may be oxidized to glucaric acid, or isomerized to another hexuronic acid, so there is no reasonable toxicity mechanism. （via wikipedia）
Glucuronolactone is a molecule that is commonly found in energy drinks (at around 10-60mg, with variance depending on brand), although in studies ‘disassembling’ the constituents of energy drinks suggest no significant contribution towards energy.
In vitro, D-glucuronolactone can be metabolized by a dehydrogenase into D-Glucaro-1,4-Lactone (G14L), where D-glucuronolactone appears to metabolize into a dilactone (d-glucaro-1,4-3,6-dilactone) and then spontaneously degrade into G14L.
D-Glucaric acid is the main urinary metabolite of the glucuronic acid pathway, which synthesizes Glucuronic Acid for the purposes of conjugation by drug metabolizing enzymes (UGT transferases). Daily urine output of D-Glucaric Acid is approximately 30-100umol.
Skeletal Muscle and Performance
One study injecting glucuronolactone (100mg/kg) intraperitoneally in rats immediately prior to a 30 minute swim and subsequent rest (the swim which was repeated three times, each with an injection prior to the swim) noted that glucuronolactone failed to affect time to exhaustion in the first swim but improved performance relative to saline in the second and third swim. (via examine)
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