|Description||White or almost white crystalline powder||Complies|
|Loss on drying||0.5||0.10%|
|Specific Rotation||– 68.0° ~ –72.0°||– 69.°|
|Residue on ignition||≤0.1%||0.05%|
|Limit of Ammonia||≤4ppm||Complies|
|Limit of sulfate||≤0.02%||Complies|
|Assay (HPLC)||Conforms to the USPXXX||Complies|
|Conclusion: Meets the requirements|
Adenosine is a purine nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. Adenosine is widely found in nature and plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer — as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) — as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It is also a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal. Adenosine also plays a role in regulation of blood flow to various organs through vasodilation. In addition to adenosine’s endogenous forms, it is also used as a medication, specifically, as an antiarrhythmic agent, to treat a number of forms of supraventricular tachycardia that do not improve with vagal maneuvers. Common side effects include chest pain, feeling faint, shortness of breath along with tingling of the senses . Serious side effects include a worsening dysrhythmia and low blood pressure. It appears to be safe in pregnancy.
When it is administered intravenously, adenosine causes transient heart block in the atrioventricular (AV) node. This is mediated via the A1 receptor, inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP and so causing cell hyperpolarization by increasing inward K+ flux via inward rectifier K+ channels, subsequently inhibiting Ca2+ current. It also causes endothelial-dependent relaxation of smooth muscle as is found inside the artery walls. This causes dilation of the “normal” segments of arteries, i.e. where the endothelium is not separated from the tunica media by atherosclerotic plaque. This feature allows physicians to use adenosine to test for blockages in the coronary arteries, by exaggerating the difference between the normal and abnormal segments.
The administration of adenosine also reduces blood flow to coronary arteries past the occlusion. Other coronary arteries dilate when adenosine is administered while the segment past the occlusion is already maximally dilated. This leads to less blood reaching the ischemic tissue, which in turn produces the characteristic chest pain.
In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm.
Certain SVTs can be successfully terminated with adenosine. This includes any re-entrant arrhythmias that require the AV node for the re-entry, e.g., AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), AV nodal reentrant tachycardia(AVNRT). In addition, atrial tachycardia can sometimes be terminated with adenosine.
An electrocardiogram showing the conversion of SVT with adenosineFast rhythms of the heart that are confined to the atria (e.g., atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) or ventricles (e.g., monomorphic ventricular tachycardia) and do not involve the AV node as part of the re-entrant circuit are not typically converted by adenosine. However, the ventricular response rate is temporarily slowed with adenosine in such cases.Because of the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent SVTs, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent. When adenosine is used to cardiovertan abnormal rhythm, it is normal for the heart to enter ventricular asystole for a few seconds. This can be disconcerting to a normally conscious patient, and is associated with angina-like sensations in the chest.
Adenosine is used an adjunct to thallous (thallium) chloride TI 201 or Tc99m myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (nuclear stress test) in patients unable to undergo adequate stress testing with exercise
When given for the evaluation or treatment of a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), the initial dose is 6 mg to 12 mg, depending on standing orders or provider preference, given as a rapid parenteral infusion. Due to adenosine’s extremely short half-life, the IV line is started as proximal (near) to the heart as possible, such as the antecubital fossa. The IV push is often followed with an immediate flush of 10-20 ccs of saline. If this has no effect (i.e., no evidence of transient AV block), a dose of 12 mg can be given 1â€“2 minutes after the first dose. Some clinicians may prefer to administer a higher dose (typically 18 mg), rather than repeat a dose that apparently had no effect.[dubious â€“ discuss] When given to dilate the arteries, such as in a “stress test”, the dosage is typically 0.14 mg/min, administered for 4 or 6 minutes, depending on the protocol.
Dopamine may precipitate toxicity in the patient. Carbamazepine may increase heart block. Dipyridamole potentiates the action of adenosine, requiring the use of lower doses.
Theophylline and caffeine (methylxanthines) competitively antagonize adenosine’s effects; an increased dose of adenosine may be required. By nature of caffeine’s purine structure, it binds to some of the same receptors as adenosine. With the proviso that theophylline and theobromine cross the blood-brain barrier very poorly (thus, a low CNS effects on the heart), the pharmacological effects of adenosine may therefore be blunted in individuals taking large quantities of methylxanthines (e.g., caffeine, found in coffee, or theophylline in tea, or theobromine, as found in chocolate).
Adenosine Side Effects
In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by adenosine. In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.
If any of the following side effects occur while taking adenosine, check with your doctor or nurse immediately:
difficult or labored breathing
lightheadedness or dizziness
throat, neck, or jaw discomfort
tightness in the chest
dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat
unusual tiredness or weakness
Fast, irregular, pounding, or racing heartbeat or pulse
pounding in the ears
Minor Side Effects
Some of the side effects that can occur with adenosine may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:
feeling of warmth
loss of appetite
nausea or vomiting
passing of gas
redness of the face, neck, arms, and occasionally, upper chest
stomach pain, fullness, or discomfort
Area of decreased vision
discomfort in the back, ears, or tongue
shakiness in the legs, arms, hands, or feet
trembling or shaking of the hands or feet
Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that modulates many physiological processes. Cellular signaling by adenosine occurs through four known adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3).
Extracellular adenosine concentrations from normal cells are approximately 300 nM; however, in response to cellular damage (e.g. in inflammatory or ischemic tissue), these concentrations are quickly elevated (600–1,200 nM). Thus, in regard to stress or injury, the function of adenosine is primarily that of cytoprotection preventing tissue damage during instances of hypoxia, ischemia, and seizure activity. Activation of A2A receptors produces a constellation of responses that in general can be classified as anti-inflammatory.
In the US, Adenosine is marketed as Adenocard. In India Adenosine is sold as Adenoscan (Cipla)
Adenosine has been shown to promote thickening of hair on people with thinning hair. A 2013 study compared topical adenosine to minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia, finding it was not superior to minoxidil and further trials were needed. wikipedia
What is the use of adenosine?
Treating certain types of irregular heartbeat. Certain brands of adenosine are used during a stress test of the heart. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Adenosine is an antiarrhythmic and a nucleoside. It works to treat irregular heartbeat by slowing the electrical conduction in the heart, slowing heart rate, or normalizing heart rhythm. It helps during a stress test of the heart by improving blood flow to the heart.
Do NOT use adenosine if
you are allergic to any ingredient in adenosine
you have second- or third-degree heart block and do not have an artificial pacemaker
you have sinus node disease (eg, sick sinus syndrome) and do not have an artificial pacemaker
you have certain breathing problems (eg, asthma)
Before using adenosine
Some medical conditions may interact with adenosine. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:
if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding
if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement
if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances
if you have a history of seizures
if you have blood vessel problems, heart problems, low blood volume, or lung or breathing problems (eg, emphysema, bronchitis)
Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with adenosine. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:
Aminophylline because the risk of seizures may be increased
Beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol), digoxin, diltiazem, or verapamil because the risk of irregular heartbeat may be increased
Carbamazepine or dipyridamole because they may increase the risk of adenosine’s side effects
Methylxanthines (eg, caffeine, theophylline) because they may decrease adenosine’s effectiveness
This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if adenosine may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.
How to use adenosine
Use adenosine as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.
Adenosine is given as an injection at your doctor’s office, hospital, or clinic. Contact your health care provider if you have any questions.
If you miss a dose of adenosine, contact your doctor immediately.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use adenosine.
Important safety information
Very bad and sometimes deadly heart problems (eg, irregular heartbeat) have happened after this drug was given. Discuss any questions or concerns with your doctor.
Avoid food or drink that have caffeine (eg, coffee, tea, cocoa, cola, chocolate) before getting this drug. Talk with your doctor if you have questions.
Lab tests, including electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure, may be performed while you use adenosine. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you plan on becoming pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using adenosine while you are pregnant. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use adenosine, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.
Possible side effects of adenosine
All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Check with your doctor if any of these most COMMON side effects persist or become bothersome:
This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
If OVERDOSE is suspected:
Contact 1-800-222-1222 (the American Association of Poison Control Centers), your local poison control center, or emergency room immediately.
Proper storage of adenosine
Adenosine is handled and stored by a health care provider. You will not store it at home. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and away from pets.
If you have any questions about adenosine, please talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
Adenosine is to be used only by the patient for whom it is prescribed. Do not share it with other people.
If your symptoms do not improve or if they become worse, check with your doctor.
Check with your pharmacist about how to dispose of unused medicine.
This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take adenosine or any other medicine. Only your health care provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for you. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about adenosine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to adenosine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You must talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using adenosine. drugs.com
ATP is the abbreviation of the English name. The structure of ATP molecules can be abbreviated as AP ~ P ~ P, where A representative of adenosine, P behalf of phosphate groups, ~ represents a particular chemical bond, called the high-energy phosphate bond, high-energy phosphate bond cleavage, the large amount of energy is released out.
This product is a kind of coenzyme. To improve body metabolism, involved in
body fat, protein, sugar, nucleic acid and nucleotide metabolism, is also the main source of energy in the body. Apply Cell Injury enzyme decline diseases. Animal tests on this product electrophysiology of myocardial cells plays a significant role, can inhibit the slow reaction of cells in calcium influx, blocking and prolonging atrioventricular conduction before the loop, large doses can still be blocked atrioventricular Way of reentry, with enhanced role of the vagus nerve, can be used supraventricular tachycardia.